Paradox and Cross-Border Complexity

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Type and Duration

FFF-Förderprojekt, June 2021 until May 2023 (finished)


Chair of Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management

Main Research

Growth and Complexity


Globalization, digitalization and changing consumption patterns brought with it unprecedented complexity, pace, and diversity. Organizations are forced to tackle new or evolving paradoxical tensions (for example between goals such as innovation and efficiency or economic and social value creation). While such paradoxical tensions need to be managed by all types of organizations, they are particularly challenging in firms with substantial cross boarder relationships. This has two reasons: First, the tensions are complemented with the additional trade-off between
global adaptation and local responsiveness inherent in all multinational organizations (Ambos et al., 2020). Second, researchers have shown that different cultures have fundamentally different approaches to perceive and deal with tensions (Smith et al., 2017). While prior research acknowledges these challenges, we know little about how paradoxical tensions are perceived and can be managed across different cultures within multinational organizations. This is of particular importance for Liechtenstein and the broader Rhine Valley region, where large corporations but also mid-sized enterprises are typically strongly export-oriented and tend to have a broad international
footprint. Furthermore, many of these firms position themselves as highly sustainable and responsible innovation leaders with a strong business acumen, which fosters paradoxes and provides the ideal research environment for this project. Finally, the project is well-aligned with the University’s core research topics, reconciling research on innovation, sustainability, and responsibility.

Principal Investigator


  • Forschungsförderungsfonds der Universität Liechtenstein


  • Langenbacher, M. (2022). Mechanisms and Situated Dynamics Embedded in Culture That Shape Individual Responses to Paradox. Presented at the 42nd Annual International Conference of the Strategic Management Society, London.