Quasi-Nonverbal Behaviors in the Digital Age: Who Even Uses Emoji

zurück zur Übersicht


Liegl, S., & Furtner, M. (2022). Quasi-Nonverbal Behaviors in the Digital Age: Who Even Uses Emoji. Presented at the 17th European Congress of Psychology, Ljubljana, Slovenia.


Präsentation auf wissenschaftlicher Konferenz


Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, advancing globalization and digitalization caused communication to shift from face-to-face interactions onto digital mediums, especially e-mail and chat messengers. The pandemic rapidly accelerated this process, producing a sudden need for society to fundamentally change the way they communicate dayto-day. The most prevalent digital mediums (i.e., e-mail and messenger services), however, are less broad and omit nonverbal behaviors, such as gestures and facial expressions. Quasi-nonverbal cues, such as Emoji, present an opportunity to counteract this absence of a nonverbal information channel and thus re-enrich conversations. They can act as social information and therefore allow for emotional contagion as well as direct inferences about their user’s characteristics. Yet, to assess the validity of these inferences, we need to identify the underlying traits predicting Emoji usage. Therefore, we explored which personality traits, according to the Big Five model, relate to heightened positive and negative Emoji usage in 237 participants. Moreover, we employed a scenario study to assess the impact of communicating with friends, family, colleagues or a date, respectively, on these general preferences. Depending on these contexts, we find distinct positive and negative influence patterns of participants’ agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness on both reported and actual Emoji usage, while neuroticism only positively related to the general preference for negative Emoji and openness showed no association. Thus, we provide more detailed insights into the complex interrelations between interindividual traits and environmental factors that affect the prevalence of quasi-nonverbal behaviors in digital written communication.


Affective Signalling in the Digital Workplace
FFF-Förderprojekt, Januar 2022 bis Dezember 2023

Die Digitalisierung prägt unsere globalisierte Welt schon seit geraumer Zeit und legt sowohl dem Individuum als auch Organisationen immer weitreichendere Affordanzen auf. Doch die COVID-19-Pandemie ... mehr

Emotional Leader Signalling in a Digital Age
FFF-Förderprojekt, März 2022 bis Februar 2023 (abgeschlossen)

Bereits vor Beginn der COVID-19 Pandemie sorgte die voranschreitende Globalisierung und Digitalisierung in Unternehmen für eine Verlagerung von direkten Gesprächen hin zu einer vermehrt digitalen ... mehr



  • Institut für Entrepreneurship
  • Lehrstuhl für Entrepreneurship und Leadership

Original Source URL